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Do you Know about File formats in digital storage

file formats

 

How many are familiar in file formats in a digital storage medium .Our Project Manager Mr. Manu Rahanish explain you a brief word about file formats in digital storage medium A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage mediumI will take a quick look at file formats for photos and images.

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF): is a bit-mapped format that is very useful for transmitting images over the Web. It is better for scanned illustrations and animation rather than photos, since it achieves some compression by limiting them to 256 colors.

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) or (JPG): is a compression technique that discards information that the human eye cannot detect, however, unlike GIF, it can support up to 16 million colors and is suitable for transmitting photos over the Web. Digital cameras and web pages normally use JPG files. JPG is used when small file size is more important than maximum image quality.

JPEG 2000: is a more recent, updated and improved version of JPEG and it offers a higher compression ratio. In addition, it eliminates some of the “blurry”  features that characterized images in the original JPEG. It also offers better progressive downloads of images.

Portable Network Graphics (PNG): is another compression technique which can reduce file sizes by up to 25% more that GIF, however, it cannot support animation. These formats are very useful since file sizes are smaller than is the case for other formats, and this in turn helps to speed up file downloads over the Internet. One additional feature of PNG is transparency for 24 bit RGB images.

Tagged Image File Format (TIFF): which is considered the highest quality format for commercial work. can be used for storing photographs, line art scanned images, etc. One advantage which this file format has over JPEG is that it can be edited and then saved without any deterioration due to compression.

Raw Files: refers to the image file formats in which pictures are captured in a number of cameras made by different manufacturers. It consists of the unedited, untouched pixel image (equivalent to a “digital negative”) stored in your digital camera. If your camera can record in 12 bits of data, you can obtain 4,096 brightness levels .If it records in 14 bit, then it 12  offers 16,384 brightness levels .

I should caution you that if you use your in-camera’s conversion to JPG, your images will be converted to the camera’s 8 bit mode and you will only get 256 levels of brightness. On the other hand, if you take the RAW image and use a RAW conversion program (such as Camera Raw or Capture One) and save your images in TIFF format, then your images will spread out into the 16 bit workspace. Obviously, the higher the brightness levels, the higher the quality of your image. The downside is that your file sizes become very large and, if you want to take a lot of pictures, you may want to use your in-camera conversion to JPG which will keep your file sizes small